Esta sección incluye una lista de los últimos artículos científicos del IPNA publicados en revistas incluidas en el Science Citation Index (SCI).
En DIGITAL.CSIC, repositorio institucional del CSIC, pueden encontrar el listado completo de artículos científicos desde 1962, así como otras colecciones de interés como congresos, tesis, libros, material divulgativo, etc. del centro. El objetivo de DIGITAL.CSIC es organizar, preservar y difundir en acceso abierto los resultados de nuestra investigación.
En el repositorio institucional del CSIC, pueden encontrar el listado completo de artículos científicos, así como otras colecciones de interés como congresos, tesis, libros, material divulgativo, etc.
Análisis de la Producción Científica del IPNA 2014-2019: análisis bibliométrico realizado a partir de datos recogidos en Scopus y Web of Science.
Antiamoeboid activity of squamins C–F, cyclooctapeptides from Annona globifora
Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba spp. are causative agents of human infections such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The exploration of innovative chemical entities from natural sources that induce intrinsic apoptotic pathway or a Programmed Cell Death (PCD) in Acanthamoeba protozoa is essential to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this work, the antiamoeboid activity of squamins C–F (1–4), four cyclooctapeptides isolated from Annona globiflora was tested in vitro against Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff, A. polyphaga, A. quina, and A. griffini, and a structure–activity relationship was also established. The most sensitive strain against all tested cyclooctapeptides was A. castellanii Neff being the R conformers of the S-oxo-methionine residue, squamins D (2) and F (4), the most active against the trophozoite stage. It is remarkable that all four peptides showed no cytotoxic effects against murine macrophages cell line J774A.1. The analysis of the mode of action of squamins C–F against A. castellanii indicate that these cyclopeptides induced the mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD). All peptides trigger mitochondrial damages, significant inhibition of ATP production compared to the negative control, chromatin condensation and slight damages in membrane that affects its permeability despite it conserves integrity at the IC90 for 24 h. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in all cases.
Rodríguez-Expósito, Rubén L.; Sosa-Rueda, Javier; Reyes-Batlle, María; Sifaoui, Inés; Cen-Pacheco, Francisco; Hernández Daranas, Antonio; Díaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Piñero, José E.; Fernández, José J.; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob
Invasive snake causes massive reduction of all endemic herpetofauna on Gran Canaria
Invasive snakes represent a serious threat to island biodiversity, being responsible for far-reaching impacts that are noticeably understudied, particularly regarding native reptiles. We analysed the impact of the invasive California kingsnake, Lampropeltis californiae—recently introduced in the Canary Islands—on the abundance of all endemic herpetofauna of the island of Gran Canaria. We quantified the density in invaded and uninvaded sites for the Gran Canaria giant lizard, Gallotia stehlini, the Gran Canaria skink, Chalcides sexlineatus, and Boettger's wall gecko, Tarentola boettgeri. We used spatially explicit capture-recapture and distance-sampling methods for G. stehlini and active searches under rocks for the abundance of the other two reptiles. The abundance of all species was lower in invaded sites, with a reduction in the number of individuals greater than 90% for G. stehlini, greater than 80% for C. sexlineatus and greater than 50% for T. boettgeri in invaded sites. Our results illustrate the severe impact of L. californiae on the endemic herpetofauna of Gran Canaria and highlight the need for strengthened measures to manage this invasion. We also provide further evidence of the negative consequences of invasive snakes on island reptiles and emphasize the need for further research on this matter on islands worldwide.
Piquet, Julien C.; López-Darias, Marta
Site-selective modification of peptide backbones
The site-selective modification of peptide backbones allows an outstanding fine-tuning of peptide conformation, folding ability, and physico-chemical and biological properties. However, to achieve selectivity in the core of these biopolymers is challenging. In the last few years, many advances towards this goal have been developed. This review addresses the selective modification of Cα- and N-positions, from the use of “customizable units” to the residue-directed introduction of substituents. The site-selective modification of the peptide bond, i.e. the formation of thioamides or heterocycles, which alters backbone rigidity and ability to form hydrogen bonds or recognition by enzymes, is also described. Moreover, not only the modifications in internal backbone positions, but also in the N- and C-termini are discussed. In addition to chemical methodologies, the review addresses some reactions, catalyzed by natural or engineered enzymes, that afford unprecedent regio- and stereoselectivity in backbone modifications.
Boto, Alicia; González Martín, Concepción C.; Hernández, Dácil; Romero-Estudillo, Iván; Saavedra, Carlos J.
Relationship Between Exposure to Sulphur Dioxide Air Pollution, White Cell Inflammatory Biomarkers and Enzymatic Infarct Size in Patients With ST-segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes
Aims: To analyse the relationship among air pollutants, markers of inflammation and infarct size in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This was a prospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to hospital because of ACS. Cardiac biomarkers were drawn. The daily mean values of the air pollutants from the day before until 7 days before admission were analysed. The study population was stratified according to infarct size, based on median peak troponin value. Results: Patients were divided into two groups of 108 subjects each, according to median peak troponin value. Patients with extensive MIs had a higher neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and leukocyte and neutrophil counts than patients with smaller MIs. In addition, they were exposed to higher concentrations of sulphur dioxide (9.7 ± 4.1 versus 8.4 ± 3.1 μg/m3 ; p=0.009) and lower concentrations of ozone (33.8 ± 13.7 versus 38.6 ± 14.5 μg/m3 ; p=0.014). Multivariate analysis showed that sulphur dioxide levels (OR 1.12; 95% CI [1.031–1.21]; p=0.007) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (OR 1.08; 95% CI [1.011–1.17]; p=0.024) were independent predictors of infarct size. Conclusion: Patients with extensive MIs had higher white cell inflammatory levels and had been exposed to higher sulphur dioxide concentrations in the ambient air.
Díaz-Chirón, Laura; Negral, Luis; Megido, Laura; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Sergio; Abreu-González, Pedro; Pascual, Isaac; Moris, César; Avanzas, Pablo
Intramolecular Metal-free C(sp3)-H Activation Enables a Selective Mono O-Debenzylation of Fully Protected Aminosugars
Carbamate-bearing benzylated aminosugars undergo an I2/I(III)-promoted intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer (IHAT) followed by a nucleophilic attack to provide polycyclic structures. Thus, suitably positioned benzyl ethers are surgically oxidized into the corresponding mixed N/O-benzylidene acetals, which can be conveniently deprotected under mild acidic conditions to grant access to selectively O-deprotected aminosugars amenable for further derivatization. The scope of this strategy has been proven with a battery of furanosic and pyranosic scaffolds. Preliminary mechanistic studies, including Hammett LFER and KIE analyses, support a reaction pathway with the nucleophilic cyclization as the rate-determining step.
Santana, Andrés G.; Herrera, Antonio J.; González Martín, Concepción C.
Digest: Revisiting morphology-derived hypotheses of hybridization in the light of genomics
Genetic exchange between independently evolving lineages may give rise to the formation of new taxa, and hypotheses for this have been derived from species with intermediate phenotypes, when compared to potential parental species. Goulet-Scott and collaborators (2021) evaluate such a hypothesis in a wildflower species complex by integrating genomic and trait information. They find no support for hybrid speciation, despite detecting signatures of genetic admixture in some individuals resulting from interspecific gene flow in a hybrid zone.
Dust and tropical PMx aerosols in Cape Verde: Sources, vertical distributions and stratified transport from North Africa
We investigated the sources and processes affecting the vertical distribution of tropical PMx aerosols (particulate matter -PM- smaller than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) in the low troposphere of Santo Antão and São Vicente islands, in Cape Verde archipelago, a region where a better understanding of aerosols is needed due to their involvement in tropical meteorology and their impact on air quality, ocean and climate. We found that local sources had a low-scale impact. From transect measurements at ground level, we found that PMx levels were predominantly low, except near to PMx sources, where distinctive PM1 / PM2.5 ratios were measured, linked to vehicle exhaust (0.96), biomass burning (0.67) and Cape Verdean dust (0.36) emissions. The depth of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the vertical distributions of PMx showed wide variability prompted by meteorological conditions. The trade winds prevailed in the MBL, whereas other airflows were situated above it: North-Atlantic, African easterly airflow and Saharan Air Layer. Under North-Atlantic airflow conditions, the MBL extended to 1400 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Above this altitude, PMx concentrations decreased quickly (< 3 μg/m3) due to the free troposphere conditions. Under Saharan dust conditions, the MBL was confined to just 70 m.a.s.l., whereas a complex dust stratification was observed above, characterized by alternating dry air layers with high dust loads (PM10 ~ 100 μg/m3) and more humid air layers with lower aerosol loads (PM10 ~ 40 μg/m3). Within the dry easterly African airflow occurring above the marine stratocumulus typical of the MBL top (placed at 500 m.a.s.l.), we detected layers enriched in hydrophilic aerosols (PM10: ~ 8 μg/m3). These were imbedded in relatively humid air (RH ~48%), probably linked to secondary aerosol formation by in-cloud processes in the marine stratocumulus situated below. We found that PMx transport from North Africa, both under dust and dust-free conditions, is associated with complex vertical stratifications, even within the dusty Saharan Air Layer.
Rodríguez, Sergio; López-Darias, Jessica
The therapeutic potential of novel isobenzofuranones against Naegleria fowleri
The Free-Living Amoeba species, Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of a lethal encephalitis known as Primary Amoebic Encephalitis (PAM). Moreover, most of the reported cases are often related to swimming and/or diving in aquatic environments. In addition, the current therapeutic options against PAM are not fully effective and hence, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic agents against this disease. Previously isobenzofuranones compounds have been reported to present antiprotozoal and antifungal activity among others. However, to the best of our knowledge, these molecules have not been previously tested against N. fowleri. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of 14 novel isobenzofuranones against this pathogenic amoeba. The most active and less toxic molecules, were assayed in order to check induction of Programmed Cell Death (PCD) in the treated amoebae. The obtained results showed that these molecules were able to eliminate N. fowleri trophozoites and also induced PCD. Therefore, the tested isobenzofuranones could be potential therapeutic candidates for the treatment of PAM.
Rizo-Liendo, Aitor; Arberas-Jiménez, Iñigo; Sifaoui, Ines; Gkolfi, Dimitra; Santana, Yiset; Cotos, Leandro; Tejedor, David; García-Tellado, Fernando; Piñero, José E.; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob
Dispersal limitations and long-term persistence drive differentiation from haplotypes to communities within a tropical sky-island: evidence from community metabarcoding
Neutral theory proposes that dispersal stochasticity is one of the main drivers of local diversity. Haplotypes-level genetic variation can now be efficiently sampled from across whole communities, thus making it possible to test neutral predictions from the genetic to species-level diversity, and higher. However, empirical data is still limited, with the few studies to date coming from temperate latitudes. Here, we focus on a tropical mountain within the Transmexican Volcanic Belt to evaluate spatially fine-scale patterns of arthropod community assembly to understand the role of dispersal limitation and landscape features as drivers of diversity. We sampled whole-communities of arthropods for eight orders at a spatial scale ranging from 50 m to 19 km, using whole community metabarcoding. We explored multiple hierarchical levels, from individual haplotypes to lineages at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, 7.5% similarity thresholds, to evaluate patterns of richness, turnover, and distance decay of similarity with isolation-by-distance and isolation-by resistance (costs to dispersal given by landscape features) approaches. Our results showed that distance and altitude influence distance decay of similarity at all hierarchical levels. This holds for arthropod groups of contrasting dispersal abilities, but with different strength depending on the spatial scale. Our results support a model where local-scale differentiation mediated by dispersal constraints, combined with long-term persistence of lineages, is an important driver of diversity within tropical sky islands.
Gálvez-Reyes, Nancy; Arribas, Paula; Andújar, Carmelo; Emerson, Brent C.; Piñero, Daniel; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia
Habitat filtering and dispersal ability determine across-scale community turnover and rarity in Macaronesian island spider communities
Aim: Much research has focused on the separate and combined effects of habitat and geography on species communities, both in mainland and island ecosystems. However, few studies have looked into the differences among communities inhabiting different island habitats. Here we aim to determine the contributions of habitat filtering and dispersal to the differences in taxonomic structure of island communities across geographic scales. Location: Sixty plots in two habitats (forest and dry habitat) across eight islands of the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cabo Verde. Taxon: Spiders (Araneae). Methods: We generated community data by using the optimised and standardised COBRA sampling protocols. We tested the differences in three beta diversity metrics ( βTotal, βReplacement and βRichness) for each habitat and dispersal category separately, across geographic scales through nested non-parametric PerMANOVA. We tested if dispersal and habitat influenced differences between the communities of the same area by applying a PERMDISP to βreplacement, and using the distances in linear mixed models. We tested the effects of habitat and dispersal on species relative abundances (SADs) and rarity by building Gambin models for each community and dispersal group separately. Results: Communities grouped according to archipelago and habitat, in terms of taxonomic similarity. In general, β diversity increased with geographic scale, and was greater in dry habitats. βReplacement among communities of the same region was greater in dry habitats than in forests, and this difference was stronger for rare ballooners. Dry habitat communities showed more species with low abundances (rare species) at different spatial scales. Main conclusions: Our findings reveal that habitat type does not only condition the processes behind community assembly but also the scale at which they occur. Indeed, our findings are highly relevant for theories on across and within island community assembly as well as for biodiversity conservation.
Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Rigal, François; Girardello, Marco; Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís Carlos; Amorim, Isabel R.; Arnedo, Miquel; Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José Carlos; Carvalho, Rui; Gabriel, Rosalina; Lamelas-Lopez, Lucas; López, Heriberto; Paulo, Octávio S.; Pereira, Fernando; Pérez Delgado, Antonio J.; Rego, Carla; Romeiras, Maria; Ros Prieto, Alejandra; Oromí, Pedro; Vieira, Ana; Emerson, Brent C.; Borges, Paulo A.V.
Tetrazine Dynamic Covalent Polymer Networks
Dynamic nucleophilic aromatic substitution of tetrazines (SNTz) has been used for the synthesis of dynamic covalent polymer networks that take advantage of both the reversible nature of the reaction and the versatility of the tetrazine ring. Polymer microspheres were easily synthesized and they were proved to be degraded either by UV irradiation or by a chemical stimulus, recovering the original monomer, which allows an efficient recycling. It was also possible to convert one polymer into another one (metamorphosis) by irreversible exchange of monomers. Additionally, the backbone of the polymers could be reduced/oxidized or postfunctionalized with polar groups by the inverse electron demand Diels–Alder (IEDDA) reaction, which not only locked the exchange but also allows for the modulation of the polymer properties, such as solubility in water. Tetrazine dynamic polymers are a recyclable and highly versatile kind of material that enables postsynthetic modulation of their properties as well as provides novel chemical methods and photodegradation.
Rivero, David S.; Paiva-Feener, Rafael E.; Santos, Tanausú; Martín-Encinas, Endika; Carrillo Fumero, Romen
Root treatment with a vitamin K3 derivative: a promising alternative to synthetic fungicides against Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants
BACKGROUND Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold has a great economic impact on several important crops. This necrotrophic fungus causes disease symptoms during vegetative growth and also into postharvest stages. The current method to combat this disease is fungicide application, with high economic costs and environmentally unsustainable impacts. Moreover, there is an increasing general public health concern about these strategies of crop protection. We studied the protection of tomato plants against B. cinerea by previous root treatment with menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), a known plant defense activator.
RESULTS Root treatment 48 h before inoculation with MSB 0.6 mmol L−1 reduced leaf lesion diameter by 30% and notably cell deaths, compared to control plants 72 h after inoculation. We studied the expression level of several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes from different defense transduction pathways, and found that MSB primes higher PR1 expression against B. cinerea. However, this stronger induced resistance was impaired in transgenic salicylic acid-deficient NahG line. Additionally, in the absence of pathogen challenge, MSB increased tomato plant growth by 28% after 10 days. Our data provide evidence that MSB protects tomato plants against B. cinerea by priming defense responses through the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent signaling pathway and reducing oxidative stress.
CONCLUSION This work confirms the efficacy of MSB as plant defense activator against B. cinerea and presents a novel alternative to combat gray mold in important crops.
García-Machado, Francisco J.; García-García, Ana L.; Borges, Andrés A.; Jiménez-Arias, David
Democratising Heritage Values: A Methodological Review
This paper explores the transformation of heritage values from a critical perspective. The de-authorising conceptual shift in cultural heritage has not always been accompanied by a revitalisation of the dynamics of valorisation. To achieve the integration of multivocal discourses in sustainable preservation strategies, experts and academics need to work with methods that enable this to happen. This article presents a methodological analysis articulated through three different case studies that bring new experiences regarding the decolonisation of knowledge in the field of heritage values, addressing different aspects of the social dimension of cultural heritage. The first deals with contestation processes associated with productive winemaking traditions in the Rias Baixas, Galicia, Spain. The second case addresses the rebellious Paris of the Commune and the narratives associated with the valorisation of the traces that it has left in the city’s landscape. Finally, the third case analyses the values that come into play when citizens’ participation governs the transformation of an archaeological site in Barcelona. To conclude, we reflect on the idea of sustainability as a way of listening to, sharing and co-creating knowledge connected to communities.
Pastor Pérez, Ana; Barreiro Martínez, David; Parga-Dans, Eva; Alonso-González, Pablo
Macaronesia as a Fruitful Arena for Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology
Research in Macaronesia has led to substantial advances in ecology, evolution and conservation biology. We review the scientific developments achieved in this region, and outline promising research avenues enhancing conservation. Some of these discoveries indicate that the Macaronesian flora and fauna are composed of rather young lineages, not Tertiary relicts, predominantly of European origin. Macaronesia also seems to be an important source region for back-colonisation of continental fringe regions on both sides of the Atlantic. This group of archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary Islands, and Cabo Verde) has been crucial to learn about the particularities of macroecological patterns and interaction networks on islands, providing evidence for the development of the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography and subsequent updates. However, in addition to exceptionally high richness of endemic species, Macaronesia is also home to a growing number of threatened species, along with invasive alien plants and animals. Several innovative conservation and management actions are in place to protect its biodiversity from these and other drivers of global change. The Macaronesian Islands are a well-suited field of study for island ecology and evolution research, mostly due to its special geological layout with 40 islands grouped within five archipelagos differing in geological age, climate and isolation. A large amount of data is now available for several groups of organisms on and around many of these islands. However, continued efforts should be made toward compiling new information on their biodiversity, to pursue various fruitful research avenues and develop appropriate conservation management tools.
Florencio, Margarita; Patiño, Jairo; Nogué, Sandra; Traveset, Anna; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Schaefer, Hanno; Amorim, Isabel R.; Arnedo, Miquel; Ávila, Sérgio P.; Cardoso, Pedro; de Nascimento, Lea; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Gil, Artur; Gonçalves, Vítor; Haroun, Ricardo; Illera, Juan Carlos; López-Darias, Marta; Martínez, Alejandro; Martins, Gustavo M.; Neto, Ana I.; Nogales, Manuel; Oromí, Pedro; Rando, Juan Carlos; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Rigal, François; Romeiras, Maria M.; Silva, Luís; Valido, Alfredo; Vanderpoorten, Alain; Vasconcelos, Raquel; Santos, Ana M. C.
1,5-Hydrogen Atom Transfer/Surzur–Tanner Rearrangement: A Radical Cascade Approach for the Synthesis of 1,6-Dioxaspiro[4.5]decane and 6,8-Dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane Scaffolds in Carbohydrate Systems
The 1,5-HAT–1,2-(ester)alkyl radical migration (Surzur–Tanner rearrangement) radical/polar sequence triggered by alkoxyl radicals has been studied on a series of C-glycosyl substrates with 3-C-(α,β-d,l-glycopyranosyl)1-propanol and C-(α-d,l-glycopyranosyl)methanol structures prepared from chiral pool d- and l-sugar. The use of acetoxy and diphenoxyphosphatoxy as leaving groups provides an efficient construction of 10-deoxy-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane and 4-deoxy-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane frameworks. The alkoxyl radicals were generated by the reaction of the corresponding N-alkoxyphthalimides with group 14 hydrides [n-Bu3SnH(D) and (TMS)3SiH], and in comparative terms, the reaction was also initiated by visible light photocatalysis using the Hantzsch ester/fac-Ir(ppy)3 procedure. Special attention was devoted to the influence of the relative stereochemistry of the centers involved in the radical sequence on the reaction outcome. The addition of BF3•Et2O as a catalyst to the radical sequence resulted in a significant increase in the yields of the desired bicyclic ketals.
León, Elisa I.; Martín, Ángeles; Montes, Adrián S.; Pérez-Martín, Inés; Rodríguez, María del Sol; Suárez, Ernesto
Elemental composition, rare earths and minority elements in organic and conventional wines from volcanic areas: The Canary Islands (Spain)
The organic wine market is rapidly growing worldwide, both in terms of production and consumption. However, the scientific literature is not conclusive regarding differences in the elemental composition of wines according to their production method, including both major and trace elements. Minerals can be present in wine as a result of both anthropogenic and environmental factors. To date, this has not been evaluated in volcanic contexts, neither has the emergent issue of rare earths and other minority elements as potential sources of food contamination. This study using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses organic and conventional wines produced in the Canary Islands (Spain), an archipelago of volcanic origin, to compare their content of 49 elements, including rare earths and minority elements. Our results showed that organic wines presented lower potential toxic element content on average than their conventional counterparts, but differences were not significant. Geographical origin of the wine samples (island) was the only significant variable differentiating wine samples by their composition profiles. By comparing our data with the literature, no agreement was found in terms of differences between organic and conventionally-produced wines. This confirms that other factors prevail over elemental composition when considering differences between wine production methods. Regarding the toxicological profile of the wines, five samples (three organic and two conventional) exceeded the maximum limits established by international legislation. This highlights the need for stricter analytical monitoring in the Canary Islands, with a particular focus on Cu and Ni concentration, and potentially in other volcanic areas.
Alonso-González, Pablo; Parga-Dans, Eva; Arribas, Paula; Pérez Luzardo, Octavio; Zumbado Peña, Manuel; Hernández González, María Mercedes; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Andújar, Carmelo