Volatile composition of light red wines aged in Canary pine barrels from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain)
Multivarietal wines aged in barrels made from the resinous heartwood of the Canary Pine (Vinos de Tea) in La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain) were analysed, together with a control sample and a Greek Retsina wine. The concentrations of various families of varietal and fermentative volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed the significant presence of the terpene family, especially terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol (probably derived from contact with the resinous wood of the barrels), regardless of grape variety. Samples taken from commercial wineries presented significantly lower concentrations of α-terpineol than samples from traditional artisan producers. The principal component analysis clearly differentiated both from the Retsina. It also revealed a correlation between the length of time that wine aged in Canary pine barrels and a sharp increase in α-terpineol, which can be considered a marker of the typicity of these unique traditional wines on the verge of disappearance.
Alciporin, a pore-forming protein as complementary defense mechanism in Millepora alcicornis
Millepora alcicornis (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa), known as fire coral, is a tropical species settled in marine ecosystems of the Canary Islands in the last years. This hydrocoral biosynthesizes toxins involved in chemical defense and prey capture mechanisms. Toxicological studies have shown that the venom contained in the nematocysts of Millepora species is mainly composed of thermolabile proteins that display hemolytic activity, causing skin irritation and burn-like lesions upon contact. As a continuation of a previous study, the chromatographic fractionation of the aqueous extracts of M. alcicornis has confirmed the coexistence of proteins of different nature responsible for the hemolytic effects of red blood cells (RBCs) through two different mechanisms. Aside from the already described phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, in this work the presence of alciporin, a pore-forming protein (PFP), has been established for the first time for M. alcicornis. The sequence analysis revealed that alciporin fit an actinoporin with high homology to stichotoxins. The hemolytic effects of alciporin were analyzed and sphingomyelin was identified as its biological target. Also, the evolution of the hemolytic damage produced at the nanoscale has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Nocchi, Nathalia; González-Orive, Alejandro; Hernández-Creus, Alberto; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Rodríguez, Adriana; Morchón, Rodrigo; Díaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Fernández, José J.
Hypochlorous Acid Chemistry in Mammalian Cells—Influence on Infection and Role in Various Pathologies
This review discusses the formation of hypochlorous acid HOCl and the role of reactive chlorinated species (RCS), which are catalysed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase MPO, mainly located in leukocytes and which in turn contribute to cellular oxidative stress. The reactions of RCS with various organic molecules such as amines, amino acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and DNA are described, and an attempt is made to explain the chemical mechanisms of the formation of the various chlorinated derivatives and the data available so far on the effects of MPO, RCS and halogenative stress. Their presence in numerous pathologies such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, neurological and renal diseases, diabetes, and obesity is reviewed and were found to be a feature of debilitating diseases.
Curieses Andrés, Celia María; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Andrés Juan, Celia; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Pérez-Lebeña, Eduardo.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23 (18) : 1-46 (2022)